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Why do women live longer than men?

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Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And how does this benefit increase over time? We have only a small amount of evidence and the evidence isn't sufficient to draw a definitive conclusion. We know there are biological, behavioral and environmental factors which play a significant role in women living longer than men, العاب زوجية we don't know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

In spite of the number of pounds, we know that a large portion of the reason why women live longer than men do today and not in the past, is to relate to the fact that several important non-biological aspects have changed. The factors changing are numerous. Some are well known and العاب زوجية (writes in the official Glorynote blog) relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Some are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl in all countries can expect to live longer than her brothers.

It is interesting to note that, while the advantage for women is present everywhere, country-specific differences are huge. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than males; while in Bhutan the difference is just half each year.

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In wealthy countries, the advantage of women in longevity was smaller
Let's take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed over time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy at the time of birth in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two specific points stand out.

There is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they were 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

Second, the gap is widening: While the advantage of women in life expectancy was once extremely small It has significantly increased over time.

It is possible to verify that the points you've listed are applicable to other countries with data by selecting the "Change country" option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.
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